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Ocular Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

  • Samantha Fraser-Bell
    Affiliations
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
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  • Farzana Choudhury
    Affiliations
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
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  • Ronald Klein
    Affiliations
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin
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  • Stanley Azen
    Affiliations
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

    Doheny Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
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  • Rohit Varma
    Correspondence
    Inquiries to Rohit Varma, Doheny Eye Institute, Suite 4900, 1450 San Pablo St, Los Angeles, CA 90033
    Affiliations
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

    Doheny Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
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  • Affiliations
    Doheny Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
Published:February 08, 2010DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2009.11.013

      Purpose

      To assess the association between ocular factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Latinos.

      Design

      Population-based, cross-sectional study of 6357 self-identified Latinos aged 40 years and older.

      Methods

      Ophthalmic examination included subjective refraction, measurement of axial length, evaluation of iris color, Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II) grading of cataracts, and stereoscopic macular photographs for AMD lesions. Generalized estimating equation analysis incorporated data from both eyes to estimate odds ratios (OR) adjusted for covariates.

      Results

      After controlling for confounders (age, gender, and smoking), prior cataract surgery was associated with advanced AMD (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.01, 7.8), increased retinal pigment (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.5), and retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1, 4.4). The presence of any lens opacity was associated with soft drusen (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.002, 1.5). Longer axial length (per mm) was associated with decreased odds of soft drusen, increased retinal pigment, and geographic atrophy (GA) (ORs, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.7, 0.9], 0.8 [95% CI, 0.7, 0.9], 0.7 [95% CI, 0.5, 0.9], respectively). Myopia was inversely associated with soft drusen (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7, 0.99). Lighter-colored irises were associated with GA (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.0, 25.3).

      Conclusions

      Cross-sectional associations of ocular factors such as cataract, cataract surgery, and refractive errors with early AMD lesions found in Latinos are consistent with those in non-Hispanic Whites. Additionally, prior cataract surgery was associated with advanced AMD.
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