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Association Between Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dips and Optic Disc Hemorrhage in Patients With Normal-Tension Glaucoma

Published:January 13, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2017.01.002

      Purpose

      To investigate the effect of nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dips on the occurrence of optic disc hemorrhage (ODH) in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients and determine whether ODH is associated with greater likelihood of visual field progression (VFP).

      Design

      Prospective case-control study.

      Methods

      This study enrolled 698 eyes of 349 consecutive NTG patients who were ≥40 years old, underwent 24-hour intraocular pressure and ambulatory BP monitoring in the habitual position, were examined for ODH every 4–6 months with optic disc photography, and had ≥5 reliable visual field tests with minimum follow-up of 3 years. NTG patients were classified into 2 groups: “nonphysiologic” dippers, including nondippers and overdippers, and “physiologic” dippers. Odds ratios for the association between the “nonphysiologic” group and ODH were calculated using logistic regression models. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to compare outcomes with reference to the presence of ODH for VFP.

      Results

      Overall, ODH and VFP were detected in 107 (15.3%) eyes and 60 (8.6%) eyes among total 698 eyes, respectively. Overdippers showed a significantly greater frequency of ODH than nondippers or dippers. Being an overdipper was a significant and an independent risk factor for ODH occurrence during follow-up. The rates of VFP were 6%, 7%, and 24% for dippers, nondippers, and overdippers, respectively. Eyes with ODH were associated with greater likelihoods of subsequent VFP than those without. VFP occurred only in eyes with ODH.

      Conclusions

      Being an overdipper is a significant risk factor for ODH in NTG eyes. The detection of ODH during follow-up is a potent predictor of future VFP.
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      Linked Article

      • Association Between Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dips and Optic Disc Hemorrhage in Patients With Normal-Tension Glaucoma
        American Journal of OphthalmologyVol. 181
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          Kwon and associates1 have studied the association between nocturnal blood pressure dips and optic disc hemorrhage in patients with normal-tension glaucoma. In normal-tension glaucoma, while intraocular pressure (IOP) is within normal range, the fundus changes and visual field changes are present.2 The visual field loss is compatible with glaucomatous optic neuropathy.2 The authors have, however, diagnosed normal-tension glaucoma based on presence of glaucomatous optic neuropathy with or without compatible glaucomatous visual field loss.
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